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Blood pressure-pressure inside the blood vessels (inside the arteries-arterial pressure, inside the capillaries-capillary and inside veins-venous). Provides the ability to promote blood through the circulatory system and thus the metabolism of the body tissues. The value of blood pressure (AD) is determined mainly by the strength of heart, the amount of blood that throws the heart at each reduction, the resistance of blood current by the walls of blood vessels (especially Peripheral). The magnitude of hell is also affected by the amount of circulating blood, its viscosity, pressure fluctuations in the abdominal and thoracic cavities associated with respiratory movements, and other factors.
The maximum level of hell reaches during the reduction (ectopic) of the left ventricle of the heart. At the same time from the heart is pushed 60-70 ml of blood. Such quantity of blood cannot pass directly through small blood vessels (especially capillaries), therefore elastic aorta is stretched, and pressure in it rises (systolic pressure). Normally it reaches in large arteries 100-140 mm Rt. Art.
Introduction Blood pressure
During the pause between the acronyms of the ventricles of the Heart (diastole) The walls of the blood vessels (aorta and large arteries), being stretched, begin to shrink and push the blood into the capillaries. blood pressure gradually falls and by the end of the diastole reaches the minimum value (70-80 mm Hg in large arteries). The difference in the value of systolic and diastolic pressure, more precisely fluctuations in their values, we perceive in the form of pulse wave, which is called Pulse.
blood pressure in blood vessels decreases as it is removed from the heart. Thus, in the aorta the pressure is 140/90 mm Hg. (The first digit denotes systolic, or upper, pressure, and the second is diastolic or lower.) When the blood flow into the venous channel, blood pressure decreases even more, and in the largest veins (upper and lower hollow veins) blood pressure can reach from negative values. In large arteries the pressure is on average 120/75 mm Hg. In arterioles the difference in the value of systolic and diastolic pressure is practically absent, and blood pressure equals about 40 mm Hg. Hg In capillaries blood pressure is reduced to 10-15 mm Hg.
Hypertensive disease (essential hypertension) is up to 90% of all cases of chronic blood pressure increase. In economically developed countries 18-20% of adults suffer from hypertensive disease, that is, have repeated rises ad to 160/95 mm Hg. And above. Are oriented on the values of the so-called “accidental” pressure, measured after the Fiveminute rest, in the sitting position, three times in a row (the lowest values are taken), at the first examination of patients ad is necessary to measure on both hands, with Necessary and on the legs. In healthy people in 20-40 years “random” ad usually below 140/90 mm Rt., in 41-60 years-below 145/90 mm Rt., over 60 years-not higher than 160/95 mm Rt. Art.